Incontinence is generally associated with loss of bladder control, but incontinence can also mean leakage of stools. While bowel incontinence is more common in the elderly, adults and children can also be affected.
An estimated 10 to 15% percent of people with incontinence suffer from overflow incontinence. In contrast to other types of incontinence, such as stress incontinence and urge incontinence, this type of incontinence occurs more often in men than in women. In addition, overflow incontinence is more common in older people.
Gender and age are not, however, direct causes of overflow incontinence. There are usually underlying problems such as prostate problems, (benign) prostate enlargement, swelling in the ovaries and uterus, diabetes, or the use of certain medications such as antidepressants.
Bowel incontinence occurs when the sphincter muscle is no longer able to hold the feces. The most common cause of bowel incontinence is damage or weakening of the anal sphincter muscle. In addition, damage to the nerves that control the anal sphincter muscle and the pelvic floor can lead to lack of urge to go to the toilet. This damage can be caused by surgery, childbirth or congenital disease. Bowel incontinence may also be caused by constipation, haemorrhoids or rectal prolapse. People with dementia, over 65, or with certain diseases, such as nerve damage, diabetes and multiple sclerosis, have an increased risk of developing bowel incontinence
There are however many treatments available to improve bowel incontinence and quality of life, so it is important to seek help from health care professionals in time.
Bowel incontinence in children
Even though bowel incontinence occurs more often in elderly people, it can also happen to children. Especially children and (young) adults with physical and/or mental disabilities suffer from bowel incontinence due to a poorly functioning sphincter muscle. Children with a non-congenital brain disease such as Parkinson’s disease or brain damage due to an accident, may struggle with bowel incontinence or double incontinence.
IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome) and Morbus Crohn
In addition to people with disabilities and elderly people, bowel incontinence occurs in people with a bowel disease. IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome) is a disease without a specific cause for the bowel problem, flatulence and diarrhea. Some of them also deal with bowel incontinence.
Morbus Crohn is sometimes connected to loss of bowel control. In Morbus Crohn there is an inflammation in the small bowel, large bowel and/or the anus.
Obstipation and overflow-diarrhoea
Bowel incontinence can also result from obstipation. Obstipation is a severe form of constipation in which a person has difficulties emptying the bowel properly. In the long term, obstipation leads to hard feces and obstipation in the bowels. Sometimes, very soft, liquid feces are able to pass through. As soft stool is more difficult to control, loss of bowel control occurs. This kind of bowel incontinence is also called overflow diarhoea or paradox diarrhea.
Depending on the cause of bowel incontinence, there are several solutions. In case of bowel incontinence, it is always recommended to consult a physician or specialist who can recommend lifestyle changes, incontinence products, medication, surgery for the recovery of the sphincter muscle or, in severe cases, an ostomy.
Tips for treatment of bowel incontinence
Tip 1: As with involuntary urine leakage, bowel incontinence can also be reduced or completely eliminated with pelvic floor exercises and physiotherapy. A pelvic floor physiotherapist can give advice.
Tip 2: If obstipation is the cause, lifestyle adjustments can provide symptom relief. Consuming dietary fibers (i.e. cereals, vegetables and fruit) and at least 2 litres of liquids per day can make a big difference. Furthermore, sufficient exercise and sufficient time for toilet visits can give a fast result.
If adjusted lifestyle habits do not show results, medical treatment might be a solution. A physician can prescribe a laxative against obstipation. Sometimes it is possible to recover a damaged sphincter muscle by repairing it with synthetics or creating a new sphincter muscle with dynamic gracilise-synthetics.
In some cases it is not possible to treat bowel incontinence with surgery or medication. Collecting the feces in a stoma may be the preferred option.
In addition to products for urine incontinence, there are products specifically designed for bowel or double incontinence. Abri-San Premium Special from Abena for instance, is an anatomically shaped pad expecially designed for bowel incontinence and double incontinence. Standing leakage barriers with built-in pockets provides extra protect against leakage. Furthermore, the incontinence products prevent unpleasant smells.
In addition to incontinence products, a physician might also sometimes recommend the use of an anal tampon. Anal tampons are only suitable for people who lose bowels frequently during the day and not for overflow diarrhea.
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